Indeed, looking at his self portraits, we discover the handsome man he was, with his face reflecting the purity of his soul and his intelligence.
Execution of Jan Hus in Konstanz Utraquist Hussitism was allowed there alongside the Roman Catholic confession. By the time the Reformation arrived, the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia both had majority Hussite populations for decades now.
Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity — excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church.
Hus objected to some of the practices of the Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in Bohemia and Moravia to earlier practices: Czechhaving lay people receive communion in both kinds bread and wine — that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque speciemarried priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory.
Some of these, like the use of local language as the lithurgic language, were approved by the pope as early as in the 9th century. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the previous century and could not prevent schism and the Hussite Wars in Bohemia.
He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia. Martin Luther and the beginning[ edit ] See also: The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatoryparticular judgmentand the authority of the pope.
He would later in the period — write works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Marythe intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, and good works.
Magisterial Reformation Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate. Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists.
Other Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or humanismsometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches. After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, ScotlandHungary, Germany and elsewhere.
The Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinianism ; both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo.
In the course of this religious upheaval, the German Peasants' War of — swept through the Bavarian, Thuringian and Swabian principalities, including the Black Company of Florian Geiera knight from Giebelstadt who joined the peasants in the general outrage against the Catholic hierarchy.
Zwinglian and Lutheran ideas had influence with preachers within the regions that the Peasants' War occurred and upon works such as the Twelve Articles. Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in the Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others.
Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation gave birth to many radical Protestant groups throughout Europe. In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathized with the Radical Reformation despite intense persecution.
Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. From onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. The Reformation was thus a media revolution. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church.
From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas. Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language.
Illustrations in the German Bible and in many tracts popularised Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder —the great painter patronised by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and he illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatised Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.
June Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like Deepl or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.The Protestant Reformation Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century is one of the most complex movements in European history since the fall of the Roman Empire.
The Reformation truly ends the Middle Ages and begins a new era in the history of Western Civilization. The Protestant Reformation Essay examples - During the Late Middle Ages, Christian followers and clergy were becoming increasingly concerned about the corruption of the church.
Some had even declared that the dogma was false, however, the church had dealt with similar challenges before. Late Middle Ages and early Renaissance.
The late Middle Ages in Europe was a time of decadence and regeneration. A proliferation of literary forms, including didactic literature, prose renderings of classic works, and mystical tracts, was one symptom of this double tendency. The elegant Minnesang was replaced by the wooden verse of guild poetasters, the Meistersang (“mastersong”).
The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformation in western and central Europe officially began in with Martin Luther and his 95 Theses.
This was a . - The Protestant Reformation Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century is one of the most complex movements in European history since the fall of the Roman Empire.
The Reformation truly ends the Middle Ages and begins a new era in the history of Western Civilization.
Roman but Not Catholic: What Remains at Stake Years after the Reformation [Kenneth J. Collins, Jerry L. Walls] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book offers a clearly written, informative, and fair critique of Roman Catholicism in defense of the catholic faith.
Two leading evangelical thinkers in church history and philosophy summarize the major points of contention.