I vividly remember long days spent at Lancaster trying to decode the journals of marketing with the creeping sensation that I may have bitten off more than I could chew. The first theoretical model I fully understood was the Hierarchy of Effects. More than a decade since the completion of my PhD most of the arcane theories that underpinned my thesis have faded from memory.
Introduction Hypotheses Method Results Conclusion Introduction Throughout history politicians have used various methods, such as whistle-stop speeches, political advertising and political rallies, to achieve their "primary goal, the winning of votes.
By15 percent of campaign expenditures were for broadcasting. If you add the salaries of media consultants and advertising production costs, at least 40 percent of campaign dollars are spent on media expenditures in This was apparent in the primaries.
Although there exists no rule in using political advertising, prior to the s candidates usually used issue or image ads at the beginning of a campaign to establish their positive image and then used negative ads at the end of the campaign to attack the opponent.
However, those strategies were abandoned in the s. A significant trend in today's political advertising is the increasing use of negative political advertising.
In today's political campaign, candidates, either challengers or incumbents, use negative ads from the beginning of a political campaign. After examining more than 1, political commercials, Sabato asserted that: If there is a single trend obvious to most American consultants, it is the increasing proportion of negative political advertising At least a third of all spot commercials in recent campaigns have been negative, and in a minority of campaigns half or more of the spots are negative in tone or substance.
It stated that broadcasters could refuse all deceptive advertising except for political commercials. Second, the amendment to the Federal Election Campaign Act allowed private individuals and political action committees or PACs, to spend unlimited amounts on behalf of candidates.
Sandy Maisel, the amendment to the Federal Election Commission allowed PACs and individuals to make unlimited independent political expenditures on behalf of a candidate, i.
The amendment was prompted by a U. Supreme Court decision, Buckley v.
As Maisel puts it, the court "ruled that limitations on such independent expenditures was an abridgment of the freedom on speech. Because advertising sponsored by individuals or PACs is usually more aggressive than candidate-sponsored commercials, these ads are often negative.
Lavidge & Steiner model: Unfortunately there wasn’t much information avaialable on Foursquare campaigns to create awareness. Foursquare cooperates with companies to . Lavidge and Steiner () also wrote, in their article, that they are fully aware of the impulsive purchases that customers can make, but they mean that for higher economical goods these steps are essential for the advertiser to include. Lavidge, R. and Steiner, G. () A Model of Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 25,
Why do political practitioners increasingly use negative political advertising? Do they think negative ads are the most effective way to persuade voters in a short period of time in order to win an election?
Many researchers have conducted studies, but the results are inconsistent. According to politicians, because attack ads work, they increasingly use such ads. Up to now, the increasing use of negative advertising in political campaigns has created a considerable controversy between researchers and political practitioners.
Thus, more research needs to be conducted in a variety of ways to measure the effectiveness of negative political advertising. Theoretical Framework Various theories have been developed for the study of political advertising. However, the present study adopts two theories concerning the effectiveness of negative political advertising.
Expectancy theory focuses on the relationship between language use and the effectiveness of such language use on persuasion. When messages conform to people's norms and expectations, "the norms and expectations are strengthened, but the messages exert minimal impact on attitudes.
In regard to the persuasion effects of the two violations, the theory assumes that when messages positively violate people's linguistic expectations, the violation has a positive impact toward people's attitudes and evokes persuasive effectiveness.
Based on the theory, it can be assumed that voters have normative expectations about negative political advertising because such advertising is one of the most common genres in today's politics, and, as a result, voters have been exposed to numerous negative ads.
Because most negative ads have been employed to attack the opponent's image or issues, people may expect negative political ads to have standard formats and intense messages. If negative political ads conform to people's normative expectations, expectancy theory defines it as a negative violation and predicts that it evokes negative effects toward the sponsor.
Many studies support the prediction. This ripple effect in the news is a significant incentive for campaigns to devote event more resources to advertising.
They argue that "advertisement tends to reinforce partisan inclinations, the ad-watches simply amplified its effects, thus playing into the hands of the candidates and their handlers.Lavidge, Robert J.
and Gary A. Steiner. A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness. Journal of Marketing. 25(October), 59– Reprinted with the permission of the American Marketing Association. Reprinted with the permission of the American Marketing Association. The hierarchy of effects model (Lavidge and Steiner model) The hierarchy of effects model has been pro-posed by Robert Lavidge and Gari Steriner in , and has been applied as a widespread beneficial pat-tern for organizing and measuring the advertising objectives.
(Barry Howard, ). A Hierarchical Marketing Communications Model of Online and Offline Media Synergies Prasad A. Naik a,⁎ & Kay Peters b a Graduate School of Management, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, AOB IV, Room , Davis, CA , USA b Center for Interactive Marketing and Media Management, c/o Institute of Marketing, University of Muenster, Am Stadtgraben , .
The Lavidge-Steiner model provides six steps for customers from viewing an ad to finally purchasing a product. Robert J. Lavidge and Gary A.
Steiner proposed this model in a Journal of Marketing article which called on advertisers to help customers go through each of these steps. – In researchers Robert Lavidge and Gary Steiner published a seminal paper in the Journal of Marketing that outlined the Hierarchy of Effects and recommendations on advertising measurement.
They also noted that consumers appeared to progress through cognitive (thinking), then affective (feeling) and finally conative (intention) stages. Hierarchy of Effects Models. in ascending order, are awareness, interest, desire and action, while in Lavidge and Steiner's expanded model () they are ignorance, awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction and purchase.