This hypothesis relies on the vast size and consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking as well as well-regarded thinkers such as Winston Churchill  it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth. Alternatively, life may have formed less frequently, then spread—by meteoroidsfor example—between habitable planets in a process called panspermia.
Chen Hongshou —Leaf album painting Ming Dynasty Color and tone[ edit ] Colormade up of huesaturationand valuedispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next.
Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is.
Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe Kandinsky and Newton have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent. The word " red ", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light.
For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic primary and derived complementary or mixed colors like red, blue, green, brown, etc. Painters deal practically with pigments so " blue " for a painter can be any of the blues: Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music like a C note is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamicsand "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music.
These elements do not necessarily form a melody in music of themselves; rather, they can add different contexts to it. Non-traditional elements[ edit ] Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collagewhich began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense.
Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sandcementstraw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer.
There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe PhotoshopCorel Painterand many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.
Rhythm[ edit ] Rhythm is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, melody, coloration.
The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, and it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work. This is because the aesthetical value is functionality dependent, i. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of " techne ", directly contributes to the aesthetical value.
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October Main article: History of painting Cave painting of aurochs, French: Bos primigenius primigeniusLascauxFrance, an example of prehistoric art The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, which some historians believe are about 32, years old.
They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment, and they show horses, rhinoceroslions, buffalomammothabstract designs and what are possibly partial human figures. However, the earliest evidence of the act of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Landin northern Australia.
In the lowest layer of material at these sites, there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60, years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40, years old.
In Western cultures, oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media, with equally rich and complex traditions.
The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In the decades after the first photograph was produced inphotographic processes improved and became more widely practiced, depriving painting of much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world.
A series of art movements in the late 19th and early 20th centuries—notably ImpressionismPost-ImpressionismFauvismExpressionismCubismand Dadaism —challenged the Renaissance view of the world. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time.As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from initiativeblog.com Europe. Northern Irish DUP's Foster: PM May Should Ask EU for a Better Deal. The leader of the Northern Irish party which props up Prime Minister Theresa May's government said May should ask the.
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Dear friends, Today I am posting the full translation of an amazingly interesting text – Christianity and Judaism – on the issue of the historical role of the Jewish people written by a, now reposed, Archbishop of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, Archbishop Nathanel (Lvov) [“Lvov” is his last name, no reference to the city in the Ukraine].
WBCS Preliminary Examination Solved Question Paper WBCS (Exe.) Etc. Preliminary Exam was held on It was a standard paper as usual.
To download the WBCS Preliminary Examination Solved Question Paper click here.. Continue Reading WBCS Preliminary Examination Solved Question Paper North Malabar refers to the geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod and Kannur Districts, the Mananthavady taluk of Wayanad District, the taluks of Koyilandy and Vatakara in the Kozhikode District of Kerala and the entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry..
The greater part of North Malabar (except Mahé) remained as one of.