One other point must be emphasized about these themes. They became, almost immediately in the 19th century, the bases of new ideologies. How people reacted to the currents of democracy and industrialism stamped them conservative, liberal, or radical.
The industrialisation and capitalisation of society led them to question their inherent societal values and subsequently announce the rise of the proletariat against their bourgeois oppressors. However, in relation to art, literature and ideology, their critique of society is perhaps more apparent in their paper The German Ideology.
All of these paradigmatic changes in economics were analogous with changes in how society worked and how people thought. According to Marxist theory, every society is made up of an economic base, controlled by one class, from which is developed a superstructure, which contains the means of upholding and validating the base.
They are mutually co-dependent systems, in which change in one system incurs a change in the other.
These systems are important as an assessment of the collective values and principle beliefs of society. The industrialisation of society in the 19th century changed the economic base into an inherently capitalist one, in which profit and commoditisation were imperative.
Therefore, the superstructural elements of that society would, according to Marxism, be validation and support of capitalist empires. Phenomenon of the superstructure could exist in the form of almost any social institution, from the church, to politics, to art.
These could also simply be called the central ideologies of the society. Though early Marxism had its views on art and how it fit in to society, it was not until the twentieth century that Marxist literary theory was developed and applied in an empirical way to literature and art.
InLouis Althusser published On Ideology, which brought Marxist criticism, specifically ideology, and literature together in a cohesive and formal way to create a method of integrated literary analysis.
If ideology is used as a method of validating the base of society, enforcing dogmatic values and portraying the society as a effective, working system, then literature and ideology play an important role when assessed interdependently through Marxist theory.
Literature can be seen as both a controlling element of ideology, reinforcing the ideals of the ruling class, as well as a definitive product of the base ideology of the time, both physically and psychologically. The commoditisation of art and literature led to a mass production and devaluation of such.
Therefore, as well as propagate a certain reality, literature can unconsciously validate this reality to the susceptible masses.
This is especially true of the late 19th and early 20th century, when the decline of religion saw the uprising of literature as a means of calming and placating a restless populace. Marxist literary theory is concerned with this evaluation of literature as both a manifestation of ideology, and the discourse of a novel as an internal propagator of said ideology.
Therefore, not only can the physical manufacturing of a text validate an ideology, but its content may do the same. A complex internal and external textual relationship is set up here between literature and the ideology it both emerges from and forms a part of.
However, though closely interlinked through Marxist theory, art and literature can also be assessed independently from state ideological apparatuses.
Often a text will satirise and criticise the bourgeois ideology of its time, rather than adhere to it. That which is concealed, alluded to, or simply left out in a text may reflect a flawed dominant ideology.
Though Marxist literary theory has been refined, it is still divided regarding its definitions of ideologies, what they represent and how to best assess them. However, the critics I have mentioned have come up with concise and useful descriptions and evaluations of the complexities of the connection between literature and ideology.
In relation to Marxist theory, literature can be an affirmation of negative or false ideologies, a product or critique of these ideologies, or an organic generator of new ideologies.
It is not merely one facet of an umbrella term, but rather a dynamic system of change and influence, self-reflexive validation and critical assessment.Marx and Bourgeois Ideology Labor is the use, manifestation or exercise ofthe capacity to labor, just as running is the exercise or use of the capacity to run.
Evaluation of Gramsci It is true that many members of the working classes see through bourgeois ideology, for example the lads in Paul Willis’ study realised that education was not fair.
Jump to navigation Jump to search Simplified Chinese: 毛泽东思想. Evaluation of Gramsci It is true that many members of the working classes see through bourgeois ideology, for example the lads in Paul Willis’ study realised that education was not fair. Ideology of status quo is opposed to the ideology of imperialism because imperialism, by its very nature, always favors to overthrow the status quo.
As the ideology of peace and International Law rests upon the desire for peace, so in reality this policy also turns out to be an ideology of status quo. Marx distinguished among various "levels" in a society: the infrastructure or economic base and the superstructure, which includes political and legal institutions (law, the police, the government) as well as ideology (religious, moral, legal, political, etc.).